M.B.M. Engineering College
National Law University
Netraheen Vikas Sansthan
Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute
The arid zone of India covers about 12% of the country’s geographical area and occupies over 31.7 m ha of hot desert and about 7 m ha is under cold desert. The production and life support systems in the hot regions are constrained by low and erratic precipitation (100-420 mm/year), high evapotranspiration (1500-2000 mm/year), and poor soil physical and fertility conditions. The local inhabitants have evolved suitable landuse and management systems of farming, pastoralism and animal husbandry; of late, these local survival systems have become inadequate to fulfill the ever increasing needs. This has resulted in over-exploitation of the resources causing rapid and widespread land degradation and decline in productivity.
To arrest this degradation process and for scientific and sustainable management of the resources Desert Afforestation Station was established in 1952 at Jodhpur. This was later expanded into Desert Afforestation and Soil Conservation Station in 1957, and finally upgraded to Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) in 1959 under Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. The CAZRI operates through 8 Divisions, located at the headquarters in Jodhpur. There are four Regional Research Stations located in different agroclimatic zones to work on location-specific problems
Natural Resource Surveys
Integrated survey of natural resources including land forms, soils, flora, fauna, surface and ground water, present landuse and land degradation status have been undertaken using the concept of Major Land Resource Units (JLRUs). Burried courses of river in the desert were mapped using satellite imagery, confirmed through geophysical depth soundings and successfully used for ground water exploration.
|Based on satellite imagery, maps of processes leading to desertification and common property resources (PCRs) have been developed.|
The extent of soil movement under different land use systems has been qualified. Soil movement due to barren surface and high wind velocity is a mojor problem. Technologies to minimize sand movement through establishment of shelter belt and technologies for dune stabilization have been developed.
For efficient rainwater harvest through roof surfaces, constructed catchments and for storage technologies like Khadin, nadis, tankas, anicuts, have been refined and developed.
Since soils are sandy and water retention is poor, water is rapidly lost either as evaporation or deep drainage. For holistic management of water the concepts of watershed management for areas having single integrated drainage system and index catchment for areas lacking single drainage system have been developed.
The arid region is endowed with minerals that are being increasingly exploited and a trail of waste land is left. Technologies integrating suitable speciess, soil amendments
|and water harvesting, for rehabilitation of gypsum and limestone mined lands have been developed.|
Technologies for sustainable crop production under rainfed conditions have been developed. Improved varieties of pearl millet, clusterbean, moth bean and horsegram developed at the Institute have been released for large scale plantation. Paired and triplet planting as well as intercroppings consistently given higher yields during low rainfall years.
Interplot and in-plot rain water harvesting and adoption of soil moisture conservations measures have increased the crop yields.
of high soil fertility in ameliorating the adverse effects of moisture
and salinity stress have been established and contributions of legumes
in improving the soil fertility and contribution of BNF in improvement
of yields of legumes have been quantified.
In the arid region there is plenty of scope for cultivation of fruit trees. Technique for propagation of ber through budding of improved varieties like Gola, Seb and Mundia on local root stock has made major impact in the arid and semi-arid regions.
A large number of varieties, like Jalore seedless of pomegrante, Dhara Road and Faizabadi local of bael, kanchan and Krishna of anola, have been identified that can be successfully raised even on marginal lands with certain conser-vation measures.
Due to technologies developed to raise improved varieties and better management practices the area under orchard is continuously on the rise. Techniques for extraction and processing of juice/pulp of fruits like ber, bael, pmegranate, aonla, etc., have been standardized.
Livestock are an important source of sustenance of farmers particularly during low rainfall year when crop yields are too low to be of any economic significance. The time of first calving and the inter-calving period has been reduced through proper management in cattle. Marwari and Magra breeds of sheep have been identified to be suitable for the desert tracts as these breeds can sustain if watered twice a week without any adverse effects on body weight. Parbatsar, a new breed of goat has been identified. This breed has higher growth rate, milk yield and duration of lactation. A technique of ensiling surplus fodder, using over-fermented milk, urea and molases has been developed. Digestibility of high tannin containing feed has been improved by soaking the feed in 1% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. A balance concentrate of mineral mixture has been developed that hastens the body weight gain, milk and wool yield in sheep and milk yield in cattle.
Renewable Energy Resources
In the arid regions there is plenty of solar energy available to meet the human energy needs both in urban and rural areas. Various types of solar cookers to cook food and feed, water heaters and distillation plants have been designed and developed. Dryers to dehydrate agriculture produce are getting popular as the produce retains its colour, flavour and the texture. Similarly wax melter and candle making machine is also getting popular. To make these devices versatile and multipurpose devices are being developed. Solar PV panel have been successfully used to supply power to run TV, light, fan, pesticide sprayer and to operate drip irrigation system.
The socio-economic viability of the technologies developed were evaluated and surveys on the socio-economic aspects of the desert dwellers under taken. The cost benefit analysis of various land use systems revealed that pasture based live stock system have positive net present value and annuity as compared to arable farming. Thus farmers need to be encouraged to adopt the live stock based farming system.
Side by side
with its research efforts, CAZRI has been able, through its extension
and training activities to reach a large number of farmers and concerned
state government officials with information of on new desert development
|Residential School for the Blinds upto 12th Class|
|Hostel facility for Boys & Girls|
|Teaching through Brail|
|Provision of Library & Reading Room|
|Training by Trained Teachers in Music|
|Computrised Mini Brail Press|
|Special Arrangments for Cultural Activities|
|Facilities for Medical & Health Checkups|
|Scheme of Industrial Training for Self Emloyment|
|Arranging Tours Cultural & Historical Places|
Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute is a well known Institution of Jodhpur & Rajasthan. The main objective is collection, preservation, elition and publication of handwritten menuscripts. It is working for last 50 years for achievement of its objectives. In Jodhpur Directorate ore than 26000 rare references are available. Various ambitious projects are underway for protection of Rajasthani Culture. A permanent Art Gallery has been planned to creat awareness among people regarding Collections / Activities of Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute.
ARID FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE (AFRI)
Located in the heart of Thar desert at Jodhpur, Arid Forest Research Institute was created in the year 1988 to conduct forestry research primarily towards controlling desertification and improving land productivity of arid lands. The Institute, is to meet the forestry research needs of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Dadar Nagar Haveli.
The primary objectives of the Institute is to conduct research on greening the arid and semi-arid araes of the country and within the region on eco-restoration of the sand dunes,Rann of Kanchcha and Aravalli hills,development of agri-silvi-pastoral packages for the arid tracts, and research on natural regeneration in the national forests.
The institute has made significant strides in forestry research. Its achievements include, control of seedling mortality in Azadirachta indica nurseries,fertilizer response of ailanthus excelsa, a valuable species yielding fodder and adopted to the arid tract by application of phosphatic fertilizers, leading to remarkable improvement in its growth. Findings of rain-water harvesting and mulching with view to moisture management in strees sites are of immense value. Several studies pertaining to developing technology for desert afforestation with particular emphasis on evolving such as sand dunes, saline alkaline lands, and Rann of Kanchcha have been initated. Moisture is the single most important limiting factor in arid areas for the establishment of trees and their growth. Keeping this in view several studies relating to moisture conservation, and water balance have been taken up.
Research relating to introduction and evaluation triais of exotic species from matching bio-climatic zones have been initiated. The institute is participating in international provenance trials of babul and neem with a view to find out the most suitable provenance for the arid zone. Insect pest and diseases which cause on extensive damage too plants in the nursery and plantations are being investigated with respect to their intigrated management.
PERSPECTIVE IN RESEARCH
further information, please contact:
Arid Forest Research Institute (AFRI)
(Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education)
P.O. Krishi Upaz Mandi, Basni,
New Pali Road, JODHPUR - 342 005 (Rajasthan) INDIA
E-Mail : email@example.com
Phone No +91 0291 2722549, Fax +91 0291 2722764
Remote Sensing Application Centre Government of Rajasthan
In Rajasthan Remote Sensing activities started with the establishment of Aerial Photo Interpretation Laboratory (APIL) in 1979 as a part of centrally sponsored Desert Development Programme to assist Soil and Water Conservation Planning in the State under State Agriculture Department. Later on in 1985 looking to the multidisciplinary utility of remote sensing technology, the laboratory was transferred to Department of Science and Technology, Government of Rajasthan and renamed as State Remote Sensing Application Centre (SRSAC).
Over last two decades the Centre has worked one number of user oriented application projects for planning various Natural Resources Management activities. It has achieved proficiency in the technology by collaborating Department of Space, World Bank, Central and State Government Departments, Sponsored projects and also popularized Remote by organizing trainings / courses / workshops / seminars on Remote sensing Techniques. Most of the data base is being put into use by line departments. Important among these are Watershed Atlas of Rajasthan, Water Harvesting Structure master plan, Hydrogeological mapping, Waste land mapping, Lift irrigation master plan, Ravines mapping, Urban land use maps and number of evaluation studies
UNIQUE ATTEMPTS (MAIDEN IN COUNTRY AT STATE LEVEL)
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